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The alcohols are Hydrocarbons, these alcohols contain one or more OH (Hydroxyl groups), the etyl alcohol is commonly used alcohol.

The alcohols are prepared by fermentation process. The sugar can fermented by using yeast leads to form alcohol.

Pharmacological actions of alcohols on different body systems:

Ø  External:

·         Astringent; The alcohols cause precipitation of proteins

·         Refrigerent: When were applied on skin produce cooling effect is known as refrigerant effect.

·         Rubifaciant: The alcohols are dilates cutaneous blood vessels is known as rubifaciant effect.

·         Deteregent: The alcohols dissolve sebaceous secretions.

·         Antiseptic: The alcohols kill the micro organism.

Ø  Gastro intestinal tract: When were the less quantity of alcohol tack increase the gastric acid secretions, continuously tacken leads to cause ulcers due to excess concentration of gastric fluids. It also produce carminative effect.

Ø  Liver: Continuous administration of alcohol (Chronic administration) leads to cause fatty liver and liver disfunction.

Ø  Central nervous system: The alcohol produce initial excitation and followed by progressive depression. The initial excitation due to depression of higher inhibitory center. When were increase the dose depression followed by drowsiness, sleep and unconsciousness will cause.

Ø  Cardiovascular system: Moderate dose cause cutaneous vasodilatation leads to cause feeling of flushing and warmth. The concentration of alcohol increases leads to cause higher blood pressure due to reflex action.

Ø  Respiration: Moderate dose causes slightly stimulation where as increase the dose leads to cause the respiratory depression may cause fatal also.

Ø  Kidney: The output of urine increase due to depression of Anti Diuritic Hormone Production.

Ø  Sexual function: The alcohol cause the Aphrodisiac action (Erection of sexual organs), This is due to loss of inhibitory controle. Also, it provokes the sensation but take away the performance, means erection of sexual organs done but performance nil.   


Finally the lower concentration of alcohol produce good effects on body system higher concentration leads to fatal effects may cause death.